What Financial Statements Investors Expect? Why?

You want to start a company and you want to fund the company by raising money from investors. What financial statements will potential investors expect to see?

Let’s talk about what they expect to get from two key phases in securing investment. The first is known as an “investor pitch”. This is a short presentation you deliver to investors about your great business idea.

The second is known as “due diligence”. This is the process investors use to convince themselves that investing in your idea is a sound undertaking . . . or not.

1. Financial Statements During Investor Pitch

If you are interested in attracting investment money from traditional sources such as angel investors or venture capitalists, they will expect you to make a short presentation to them, usually somewhere between 10 and 20 minutes.

Much of that time will be devoted to conveying the problem or pain you are addressing and your unique approach to solving it, but toward the end of the presentation, an entrepreneur usually includes three slides on financials:

  • Key Assumptions
  • Key Financials
  • Cap Table

Key Assumptions.

This slide lists the primary assumptions that you have made that drive the financial results to be shown on the following slide. Include only the most important assumptions.

This is an opportunity for you to demonstrate to investors that you understand what factors are the most critical to your business achieving its financial goals.

Here are some examples, but don’t use these; use the ones most important for your business:

  • Customer acquisition cost < $100
  • Average order size > $350
  • Annual increase in our cost of goods sold < 7%
  • By year 2, we will be able to negotiate ‘net 60’ terms with suppliers
  • Annual customer attrition rate < 20% (i.e., retention rate >= 80%)
  • We will be able to attract an effective VP of marketing for $75,000 plus a 10% equity stake

Key Financials.

This slide captures the most important data from your financial statements on one slide, without requiring a microscope.

Once again, this is an opportunity to demonstrate that you understand what is important. [Here’s one hint: omit cents!] Although the exact selection of data will vary based on the type of business, a good start is 5 columns (for 5 years) and 8 rows showing:

  • Number of units sold (or perhaps number of customers)
  • Annual revenues
  • Cost of goods sold
  • Gross profit
  • Expenses
  • Net cash from financing activities
  • Cash balance at end of year

If cost of goods sold is not important to your business, omit it and gross profit. Include a metric or two if you want to demonstrate something critical to your success, e.g., revenue/customer. Many entrepreneurs replace parts of this table with a graph. Here are two examples:

Example I shows key data from the income statement; none from the cash flow statement.

Example II shows key data from income statement graphically; with investment rounds highlighted in text boxes.

Capitalization Table

This slide shows the investors exactly what you are offering them. It shows how equity is distributed among shareholders currently, and how equity will be distributed among shareholders after the current stock offering. You can read more about how to create and interpret a cap table in How to Read a Cap Table: Advice for Entrepreneurs.

2. Financial Statements During Due Diligence

The investor pitch is designed to whet the appetite of the potential investors. If it succeeds, the investors will engage in an extensive process of discovery called due diligence. Its goal is to uncover all material facts.

They will ask questions, do research, and examine documents to determine the true state of the products, technology, competition, market, industry, personnel, financials, sales process, contracts, and relations with suppliers, partners, and customers.

Part of that due diligence process will include careful analysis of past performance (if any) and pro forma financial statements. This will include:

  • Income Statement
  • Cash Flow Statement
  • Balance Sheet

Income Statement.

Monthly for the next two years, and annually for at least the next 5 years.

This enables investors to determine:

  • Revenues and profit at the time of an expected liquidity event, so they can calculate a likely return on their investment
  • Revenue growth rates to determine if they are reasonable
  • Gross and net profit margins to determine if they are similar to other companies in your industry
  • Percentages of revenues being spent on R&D, marketing, and so on, to determine if they are similar to other companies in your industry.

Whenever anything seems unreasonable, investors will ask for clarification and/or explanation. You can read more about the income statement in Seven Things an Income Statement Tells You.

Cash Flow Statement.

Monthly for the next two years, and annually for at least the next 5 years.

This enables investors to:

  • Verify that the company is not going to run out of cash
  • See if you understand the need for sufficient cash cushion to handle unforeseen circumstances
  • Determine how many more investment dollars you will need to raise in the future
  • Learn what loans you will be making
  • Determine what fixed assets you need to purchase in order to conduct the business.

You can read more about the cash flow statement in Four Things a Cash Flow Statement Tells You.

Balance Sheet.

Annually for at least the next 5 years.

This enables investors to:

  • Quickly calculate current ratio and net working capital, to determine if you will be able to stay afloat
  • Compare accounts receivable as a function of revenues to industry averages to determine if you are being realistic with respect to receivables
  • Calculate return on equity.

You can read more about the balance sheet in Four Things a Balance Sheet Tells You.

In summary

Successful entrepreneurs need to be both detail-oriented as well as masters of abstraction. One of the many places where these skills come in handy is in the explanation and interpretation of financial statements.

Before the investor pitch, you should become comfortable with explaining your financials in 1-2 minutes. And yet in response to questions posed during due diligence, you should become comfortable with explaining any aspect of your financials with considerable detail.


Dr. Al Davis has published 100+ articles in journals, conferences and trade press, and lectured 2,000+ times in 28 countries. He is the author of 6 books, including the latest, Will Your New Start Up Make Money? He is co-founder and CEO of Offtoa, Inc., an internet company that assists entrepreneurs in crafting their business strategies to optimize financial return for themselves and their investors. Formerly, he was founding member of the board of directors of Requisite, Inc., acquired by Rational Software Corporation in 1997, and subsequently acquired by IBM in 2003; co-founder, chairman and CEO of Omni-Vista, Inc.; and vice president at BTG, Inc., a Virginia-based company that went public in 1995, acquired by Titan in 2001, and subsequently acquired by L-3 Communications in 2003.

If you’d like to learn if your great business idea will make money, take a look at Will Your New Start Up Make Money? If you’d like to verify that your great business idea makes financial sense, sign up for www.offtoa.com.